The Planning Institute of Jamaica (PIOJ) was established as a Corporate Body under the Planning Institute of Jamaica Act in April 1984. Formerly called the Central Planning Agency in 1955, then in 1972 the National Planning Agency, the PIOJ was established to strengthen the planning capability of the Government.

The PIOJ, headed by a Director General, currently falls under the portfolio of the Ministry of Finance and the Public Service. The Minister in charge appoints between six and eight members to the Board for a three- to five-year period. The Director General serves as the Board Chairman and is responsible for the day-to-day operations of the Institute.

The financial year of the PIOJ runs from January to December and audited financial statements and reports are tabled in the House of Representatives at the end of each reporting period.